From Forced Conversion to Marranism

Crypto-Jews (bildiyyīn) in Morocco and Their Fate

Prof. Dr. Paul E. Fenton

Forced conversions of Jews to Islam in al-Andalus and the Maghreb were followed by difficulties of integrating these converts into Muslim society. Despite their having become, with time, pious and learned Muslims, the descendants of these converts, known as “bildiyyīn,” continued to be marginalized within majority society. They constituted over the centuries a distinct ethnic group that was subjected to restrictions and discrimination.